Introduction ::MontenegroBackground:The use of the name Crna Gora (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro, while a part of the Ottoman Empire, was able to maintain a level of autonomy. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.Geography ::MontenegroLocation:Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and SerbiaGeographic coordinates:42 30 N, 19 18 EArea:total: 13,812 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 162land: 13,452 sq kmwater: 360 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly smaller than ConnecticutLand boundaries:total: 625 kmborder countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Kosovo 79 km, Serbia 124 kmCoastline:293.5 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontinental shelf: defined by treatyClimate:Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inlandTerrain:highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateausElevation extremes:lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 mhighest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 mNatural resources:bauxite, hydroelectricityLand use:arable land: 12.45%permanent crops: 1.16%other: 86.39% (2011)Irrigated land:24.12 sq km (2010)Natural hazards:destructive earthquakesEnvironment - current issues:pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as KotorEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollutionsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:strategic location along the Adriatic coastPeople and Society ::MontenegroNationality:noun: Montenegrin(s)adjective: MontenegrinEthnic groups:Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma (Gypsy)) 12% (2003 census)Languages:Serbian 63.6%, Montenegrin (official) 22%, Bosnian 5.5%, Albanian 5.3%, unspecified (includes Croatian) 3.7% (2003 census)Religions:Orthodox 74.2%, Muslim 17.7%, Catholic 3.5%, other 0.6%, unspecified 3%, atheist 1% (2003 census)Population:653,474 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 167Age structure:0-14 years: 15.3% (male 48,670/female 51,379)15-24 years: 11.4% (male 35,750/female 38,516)25-54 years: 47% (male 164,913/female 142,372)55-64 years: 12.6% (male 40,618/female 41,398)65 years and over: 13.8% (male 35,573/female 54,285) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 46.7 %youth dependency ratio: 27.5 %elderly dependency ratio: 19.2 %potential support ratio: 5.2 (2013)Median age:total: 38.7 yearsmale: 37.6 yearsfemale: 40.1 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:-0.56% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 226Birth rate:10.75 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 180Death rate:9.17 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 63Urbanization:urban population: 61% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:PODGORICA (capital) 144,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female0-14 years: 0.95 male(s)/female15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1.15 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:26.3 (2009 est.)Maternal mortality rate:8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 161Contraceptive prevalence rate:39.4% (2005/06)Health expenditures:9.1% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 40Hospital bed density:3.9 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 99% of populationrural: 96% of populationtotal: 98% of populationunimproved:urban: 1% of populationrural: 4% of populationtotal: 2% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 92% of populationrural: 87% of populationtotal: 90% of populationunimproved:urban: 8% of populationrural: 13% of populationtotal: 10% of population (2010 est.)Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: intermediatefood or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrheavectorborne disease: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:22.5% (2008)country comparison to the world: 79Children under the age of 5 years underweight:2.2% (2006)country comparison to the world: 114Education expenditures:NALiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 98.5%male: 99.4%female: 97.6% (2011 est.)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 8,520percentage: 10 % (2005 est.)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 37%country comparison to the world: 14male: 35.5%female: 40% (2011)Government ::MontenegroCountry name:conventional long form: noneconventional short form: Montenegrolocal long form: nonelocal short form: Crna Goraformer: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of MontenegroGovernment type:republicCapital:name: Podgorica; note - the Old Royal Capital is Cetinje mentioned in the constitutiongeographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 Etime difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in OctoberAdministrative divisions:21 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, ZabljakIndependence:3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)National holiday:National Day, 13 July (1878)Constitution:approved 19 October 2007 (by the Assembly)Legal system:civil lawInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age, 16 if employed; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 4 December 2012)cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assemblyelection results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.2%, Miodrag LEKIC 48.8%%Legislative branch:unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms)elections: last held on 14 October 2012 (next to be held by 2016)election results: percent of vote by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 45.6%, Democratic Front 22.8%, SNP 11.1%, Positive Montenegro 8.2%, Bosniak Party, 4.2%, other (including Albanian and Croatian minority parties) 8.1%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 39, Democratic Front 20, SNP 9, Positive Montenegro 7, Bosniak Party 3, Albanian and Croatian minority parties 3Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president and 6 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 6 judges)judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court proposed jointly by the president of Montenegro, the speaker of the Assembly, and the prime minister; other judges elected by the Judicial Council; court president term is 5 years; term of other judges is 9 years; Constitutional Court judges proposed by the president of Montenegro and elected by the Assembly; court president elected among its members; term of judges is 9 years; court president term is 3 yearssubordinate courts: Administrative Court; Court of Appeal; regional and first instance courtsPolitical parties and leaders:Albanian Coalition (includes Democratic Alliance in Montenegro [Mehmed BARDHI], Democratic Party [Fatmir DJEKA], and Albanian Alternative [Djerdj DAMAJ])Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]Coalition for European Montenegro (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC], Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC], and the Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Andrija POPOVIC])Coalition FORCA for Unity (includes FORCA [Nazif CUNGU and Civic Initiative [Vaselj Sinistaj])Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]Democratic Center or DC [Goran BATRICEVIC]Democratic Front (bloc) [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC], Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC], a splinter faction of the Socialist People's Party or SNP, and the Pensioners' Party [Vojo VULETIC])Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Dragica PEROVIC]Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]Just Montenegro [Rade BOJOVIC]People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Dejan VUCICEVIC]Positive Montenegro [Darko PAJOVIC]Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdan MILIC]Political pressure groups and leaders:NAInternational organization participation:CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Srdjan DARMANOVICchancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009telephone:  (202) 234-6108FAX:  (202) 234-6109consulate(s) general: New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Sue K BROWNembassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegromailing address: use embassy street addresstelephone:  (0) 20 410 500FAX:  (0) 20 241 358Flag description:a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is symbol of episcopal authority and harks back to the three and a half centuries that Montenegro was ruled as a theocracyNational symbol(s):double-headed eagleNational anthem:name: ""Oj, svijetla majska zoro"" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVICnote: adopted 2004; the anthem's music is based on a Montenegrin folk songEconomy ::MontenegroEconomy - overview:Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system, but the state sector remains large and additional institutional changes are needed. The economy relies heavily on tourism and the export of refined metals. Unprofitable state-owned enterprises weigh on public finances. Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and maintained its own central bank, adopted the deutsch mark, then the euro - rather than the Yugoslav dinar - as official currency, collected customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro became the 156th member of World Trade Organization in December 2011. The European Council (EC) granted candidate country status to Montenegro at the December 2010 session. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EC in June, 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime. Unemployment and regional disparities in development are key political and economic problems. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector. The global financial crisis had a significant negative impact on the economy, due to the ongoing credit crunch, a decline in the real estate sector, and a fall in aluminum exports. In 2012, real GDP growth slipped to 0.5%, reflecting the general downturn in most of Europe.GDP (purchasing power parity):$7.461 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 158$7.458 billion (2011 est.)$7.226 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$4.28 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:0% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1813.2% (2011 est.)2.5% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$12,000 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 107$12,000 (2011 est.)$11,200 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 84.4%government consumption: 22.1%investment in fixed capital: 18.4%investment in inventories: 1.1%exports of goods and services: 40.2%imports of goods and services: -66.2%(2011 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 0.8%industry: 11.3%services: 87.9% (2011)Agriculture - products:tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheepIndustries:steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourismLabor force:251,300 (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 167Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 6.3%industry: 20.9%services: 72.8% (2011 est.)Unemployment rate:19.1% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 15811.5% (2011 est.)Population below poverty line:6.6% (2010 est.)Distribution of family income - Gini index:24.3 (2010)country comparison to the world: 13430 (2003)Budget:revenues: $1.68 billionexpenditures: $1.58 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:39.3% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 45Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):2.3% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 19Public debt:52.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 6145% of GDP (2011 est.)note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctionsFiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):4% (2012)country comparison to the world: 1263% (2011)Commercial bank prime lending rate:9.69% (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 939.53% (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of narrow money:$749 million (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 156$783.3 million (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of broad money:$1.982 billion (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 150$2.01 billion (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$3.29 billion (31 December 2009)country comparison to the world: 128$3.771 billion (31 December 2008)Market value of publicly traded shares:$3.322 billion (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 90$3.604 billion (31 December 2010)$4.289 billion (31 December 2009)Current account balance:-$1.938 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 134-$1.927 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$489.2 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 173$640 million (2011 est.)Exports - partners:Croatia 22.7%, Serbia 22.7%, Slovenia 7.8% (2012 est.)Imports:$2.4 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 158$2.5 billion (2011 est.)Imports - partners:Serbia 29.3%, Greece 8.7%, China 7.1% (2012 est.)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$400 million (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 149Debt - external:$1.7 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 148$1.2 billion (2011 est.)Exchange rates:euros (EUR) per US dollar -0.7778 (2012 est.)0.7185 (2011 est.)0.755 (2010 est.)0.7198 (2009 est.)0.6827 (2008 est.)Energy ::MontenegroElectricity - production:2.621 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 129Electricity - consumption:4.1 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 122Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 99Electricity - imports:1.5 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 54Electricity - installed generating capacity:868,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 126Electricity - from fossil fuels:24.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 186Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 135Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:75.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 18Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 156Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 163Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 149Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 94Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 162Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 204Refined petroleum products - consumption:4,446 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 173Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 199Refined petroleum products - imports:3,666 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 163Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 163Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 170Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 142Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 95Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 167Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:1.941 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 150Communications ::MontenegroTelephones - main lines in use:169,500 (2010)country comparison to the world: 130Telephones - mobile cellular:1.17 million (2010)country comparison to the world: 153Telephone system:general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellitesdomestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growinginternational: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2011)Broadcast media:state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 public TV stations and some 20 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations and more than 40 private radio stations (2007)Internet country code:.meInternet hosts:10,088 (2012)country comparison to the world: 135Internet users:280,000 (2009)country comparison to the world: 133Transportation ::MontenegroAirports:5 (2013)country comparison to the world: 181Airports - with paved runways:total: 52,438 to 3,047 m: 21,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 1under 914 m: 1 (2013)Heliports:1 (2012)Railways:total: 250 kmcountry comparison to the world: 124standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (169 km electrified) (2007)Roadways:total: 7,624 kmcountry comparison to the world: 144paved: 5,097 kmunpaved: 2,527 km (2008)Merchant marine:total: 2country comparison to the world: 141by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1registered in other countries: 4 (Bahamas 2, Honduras 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)Ports and terminals:BarMilitary ::MontenegroMilitary branches:Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2011)Military service age and obligation:18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 149,159females age 16-49: 131,823 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 3,120female: 3,677 (2010 est.)Transnational Issues ::MontenegroDisputes - international:noneRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 8,504 (Kosovo) (2012)stateless persons: 3,383 (2012)"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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Montenegro — • A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea; the territory was in ancient times a portion of the Roman province of Dalmatia Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Montenegro Montenegro … Catholic encyclopedia
MONTÉNÉGRO — MONTÉNÉGR Avec 13 812 kilomètres carrés, la république du Monténégro était la plus petite des républiques de la Fédération yougoslave créée en 1945 (5,4 p. 100 du territoire yougoslave), une des plus pauvres et la moins peuplée (44 hab./km2 en… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Montenegro — (Col.) m. Especie de *jardín. * * * La República de Montenegro (en serbio:Crna Gora/Црна Гора, cuyo significado es Montaña Negra) es una pequeña república montañosa situada en los Balcanes, a orillas del mar Adriático. Según su Carta Magna, la… … Enciclopedia Universal
Montenegro — Monténégro (homonymie) Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Brésil Montenegro est une municipalité de l État du … Wikipédia en Français
Montenegro — (serb. Crnagora, spr. zrnagōra, türk. Karadagh, »schwarzes [d.h. wildes, ungastliches] Gebirge«), unabhängiges slaw. Fürstentum am Adriatischen Meer, zwischen der Südspitze Dalmatiens, der Herzegowina, Altserbien und Albanien (s. Karte »Bosnien… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Montenegro — Mon*te ne gro, n. A former country bordering on the Adriatic Sea; now part of Yugoslavia [syn: [Montenegro], [Crna Gora]]WordNet 1.7] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Montenegro — [mänt΄ə nē′grō, mänt΄əneg′rō] constituent republic of S Serbia and Montenegro: formerly a kingdom: 5,333 sq mi (13,812 sq km); pop. 615,000; cap. Podgorica Montenegrin [mon΄te ne′grin] adj., n … English World dictionary
Montenēgro — (slawisch Cernagora, türkisch Karadagh, d.i. Schwarzes Gebirge), eine Gebirgslandschaft an der dalmatischen Küste, östlich von Cattaro, von Zweigen der Dinarischen Alpen durchzogen u. umwallt. Das Land gleicht einer abgeschlossenen, schwer… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Montenegro — Montenēgro (serb. Crnagora, türk. Karadagh, d.i. Schwarzer Berg), unabhängiges Fürstentum der Balkanhalbinsel [Karte: Balkanhalbinsel I], 9080 (offiziell 8433) qkm, 227.841 E. Durchaus gebirgig, durch den Fluß Zeta in zwei Gebirgsmassen zerlegt;… … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Montenegro — Montenegro. Die einzige Eisenbahn dieses Landes geht von Vir (am Skutarisee) nach (Bar) dem Hafen von Antivari. Sie ist rd. 42 km lang. Diese von der italienischen Gesellschaft »Compagnia di Antivari« 1908 erbaute Strecke ist eine Lokalbahn (75… … Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens
Montenegro — Montenegro, d.h. schwarzer Berg, Cèrnagora, unabhängiges Gebirgsland in der europ. Türkei, gewöhnlich zum Sandschak Skutari gerechnet, ist jetzt ein von den europ. Mächten anerkanntes Fürstenthum zwischen Dalmatien, der Herzegowina, Bosnien und… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon